WHAT WELL-TO-WAKE DECARBONIZATION MEANS FOR SHIPOWNERS
Ship owners, operators and managers tend to think in terms of total cost of ownership. Bunker fuel is one crucial cost input – meaning that every voyage truly begins with onshore and offshore fuel production. This adds a layer of complexity to marine decarbonization. As shipowners start to expand their vision of sustainability beyond onboard fuel consumption, they need to account for upstream fuel production processes and the emissions that result from them.
This approach – known as “well-to-wake” – is critical to assessing lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from marine fuels. By understanding the steps and challenges of well-to-wake emissions monitoring, marine stakeholders can gain a comprehensive view of their impact, as well as that of their partners.
WHAT DOES WELL-TO-WAKE MEAN?
“Well-to-wake” refers to the entire process of fuel production, delivery and use onboard ships, and all emissions produced therein.
- Raw material acquisition: covers emissions from the extraction, obtention, and collection of necessary raw materials (e.g., oil, gas, biomass, hydrogen, carbon dioxide)and their transportation to the fuel manufacturing facility
- Fuel production: covers emissions from the fuel manufacturing processes which transforms raw materials into marine fuel (e.g., refining, fermentation, electrolysis, synthesis)
- Transportation & storage:covers emissions from the transportation of marine fuel via pipeline, truck or ship to onshore, quayside and offshore storage units and bunkering facilities, sometimes including compression or liquefaction
- Bunkering: covers emissions from transfer of marine fuel from storage facilities to ship tanks
- Onboard storage: covers emissions occurring while marine fuel is held onboard ships under specific temperature and pressure conditions
- Energy conversion:covers emissions from the use of fuel onboard ships as they operate and travel, expelling GHG emissions directly into the environment